Saturday, October 07, 2006

The sun and climate

The simplicity of nature is not to be measured by that of our conceptions. Infinitely varied in its effects, nature is simple only in its causes, and its economy consists in producing a great number of phenomena, often very complicated, by means of a small number of general laws.

Pierre Laplace

It always bothers me that,according to the laws as we understand them today,it takes a computing machine an infinite number of logical operations to figure out what goes on in no matter how tiny a region of space,and no matter how tiny a region of time.How can all that be going on in that tiny space?.Why should it take an infinite amount of logic to figure out what tiny piece of space/time is going to do? So I have made the hypothesis that ultimately physics will not require a mathematical statement, that in the end the machinery will be revealed,and the laws will turn out to be simple, like the chequer board with all its apparent complexities.

Richard Feynman

There are a number of flawed assumptions on the adequacy of GCM models to accurately reflect the exogenous variable forcing’s such as solar. The assumed parameters of solar variance are normally based on the visible wavelength oscillations or the seasonal oscillations of TSI and vertical energy transport through some simplistic equations. Measurements and analysis is usually undertaken on 1 or 2 parameters and the simplistic models used in GCM do not reflect the observations or indeed the external energy budget.

GCM are also inadequate in modeling climate variability and T for predicting global climate patterns. Inadequacies are seen in the assimilation of chemical parameterization due to the different physics of chemical thermo diffusion and new chemical reactions that are observed due to exogenous forcings such as galactic and solar radiation across all spectrums.

The failure of GCM models to identify the secondary and tertiary energy variables (photochemical) sees Lipschitz continuity becoming unstable due to these small energy inputs. Therefore as the models are sensitive to initial conditions, assimilation of these chemical parameters and inverse solar variance is a necessary component for climate models.

In Simplistic terms the reconstructions consider the sun to be a heat engine that has an on/off switch with oscillations from each state .In reality there are three states on/off/ and both .

The “heat engine” of the Sun is closely related to convective and radiation transfer of free energy in the solar interior, which proceeds basically at low Mach– Alfven numbers,i.e., at a relatively small involvement of the magnetic field. The solar “dynamo” in this sense is a product rather than prime cause of solar activity. The latter in this broader meaning is understood as a fundamental property of a star with relatively small variability of energy release and transfer in its interiors against the background of much greater steady energy flux supported by nuclear fusion processes in gravitationally confined core of the Sun. From this point of view the phenomena considered on the Sun are an example of a complex self-organization in a non-equilibrium open physical system with the fluxes of free energy and mass. The “magnetic degree of freedom” from this standpoint is subordinate and controlled by other, more powerful global processes. However, locally in some areas and at some time intervals this degree of freedom can be predominant over others, which is the case during flares. Here, we deal with all manifestations of well-known general laws of physics, characteristic for nonlinear processes with dissipation.

There are a number of ways the sun effects climate.
-A change in the solar constant of (wavelength) irradiance output.
-Changes in ultraviolet irradiance that modulates temperature, atmospheric chemistry, and climatic dynamics such as precipitation and cloud formation .
-Indirect and indirect influences by solar radiation and cosmic radiation(galactic)
-Changes in magnetic and gravitational constants(solar).

The solar activity in all its manifestations is subject to regular and irregular chaotic variations in quite large ranges of amplitudes, durations, and other characteristics that have revealed themselves some way in the time intervals under analysis. This general rule does not exclude coronal mass ejections and flares, sunspots etc which represent with respect to each other not the cause and effect (sometimes, such an unjustified assumption is made),but rather two observable manifestations of a single dissipative process related to an increased transport of free energy from the interiors of the Sun outwards into its upper atmosphere and heliosphere and dispersal into space and the solar system. This free energy is redistributed in thermal, magnetic, kinetic, gravitational, and radiation forms, their relative fractions being changed from event to event depending on the situation
determined by the boundary conditions and initial state.

In addition,other channels of dissipation of free energy play an important role, for example, the thermal flows that are transferred mainly by electrons along the field into lower and colder parts on the solar atmosphere. A certain, usually lesser fraction of energy is spent for the development other kinetic processes (including acceleration of suprathermal tails in the distribution function of charged particles and formation of numerous small scale irregularities) and quickly variable processes (including convective and wave disturbances in the upper solar atmosphere). There are no doubts that, generally, direct energy cascades prevail in the solar atmosphere, since free energy in different forms is delivered from the interiors of the Sun to be emitted into open space mainly in the form of emission. However, inverse energy cascades undoubtedly take place and play important role in the redistribution of free energy and in the formation of dynamic structures in the solar atmosphere.The spectral region near 5-min oscillations in the photosphere can serve as an example. The ratio and balance between the direct and inverse energy cascades on the Sun still are studied insufficiently well(although the emission fractions and process are understood.

The second important remark can be made that any adequate description of physics of the processes involved is possible only taking into account the transport of energy, momentum, and mass in considered open systems with their complex space-time structure of corresponding flows. In this case the conceptions of equilibrium and stability of isolated system can serve as useful idealization only in the simplest cases, as well as models of replenishment from above, below, or from side of the considered segment. In general, the main difficulty is that there are no sufficient observational data in order to separate such isolated system and thus to localize the consideration of causes and effects. In the future, for quantitative estimation of the degree of openness of one or another morphological element it is convenient to use so-called Triest numbers which represent the ratios of internal, external, and connecting flows of mass, momentum, and energy.

The solar terrstrial model pictured allows simplication of the process and celestial mechanics.


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