Friday, February 16, 2007


The sun and its role in the amplification of cooling

2007 is International heliophysical year. What this is the understanding if the relationship between external energy production from both the sun and the cosmos and the amplification and attenuation(modulation) of the terrestrial climate by a number of high energy photochemical process’s.

By reducing the energy measurements to the quantum(lowest devisable level)we can observe that a single IF visible photon is 1 quantum. an x-ray photon 200000 equivalents, and a gamma ray I million times the energy level. Here we see when comparative fluxs are quoted we need very small amounts to produce significant amplification of atmospheric thermochemical dynamics.

The Sun sends to the Earth different types of radiations:

Photons (visible optical OPT, infrared IR, X-rays, gamma rays, etc.) and
Particles (the permanent SW, the sporadic SCR, etc.).

The Sun also generates the interplanetary magnetic field IMF.The whole Solar system is radiated by GCR, which are generated in the supernovae stars and in the Nucleus of the Galaxy in the Galactic Center - GC. The solar wind and interplanetary magnetic fields modulate GCR with their cycles (11- and 22- years, 27- days, etc.).

However GCR determine the chemistry and electrical parameters in the atmosphere. They create ozonosphere and influence actively on O3 processes. GCR transmit to the ozonosphere their solar modulation. But the ozonosphere controls the meteorological solar constant and the thermal regime and dynamics (including the dynamics of the cloud system) of the lower atmosphere,i.e. the weather and climate.This mechanism may be expanded taking into account that the GCR create not only the atmospheric but the hydrosphere and lithosphere part of the ozonosphere also. The so shown mechanism of the solar-terrestrial relationships shows the way to a non-contradictory solution of the key problems of the solar-terrestrial physics.

The inadequacy of analysis to review long term orbital parameters(long frequency)or short term(short frequency) such as the 11 year cycle or the suns 27 day rotational cycle or indeed the energetic upper atmosphere ionisation during solar events(x-ray flaring) Previous observations and modeling of the responses of planetary ionospheres to changes in solar flux have generally compared solar maximum and minimum conditions. Varying solar fluxes also modify the neutral atmosphere,and thus ionospheric changes result from two highly coupled processes. Changes in photon flux due to a flare from far slower changes in the neutral atmosphere, thereby providing a way to constrain or liberate photochemistry. This is particularly important for x-ray photons that carry energy far above that needed to ionize an atom or molecule(around 2.5 magnitudes,a single photon with an energy value of around 36kev can ionize around 200000 molecules.).In such cases,the electron liberated by ionization has so much extra energy that it ionizes other atoms and molecules via collisions. This secondary ionization by photoelectrons has an amplification effect on upper atmosphere chemical genesis (thermo diffusion).

Indeed as an x-ray photon enters a water molecule for example, it severs the chemical bonds,the component parts of the water molecule,which in the presence of O2 form hydrogen and hydroxyl radicals,super oxide ions, and hydrogen peroxide. The process also releases substantial energy as thermal emissions.

Among the most striking natural phenomena affecting ozone are solar proton events (SPE), during which high-energy protons precipitate into the middle atmosphere in the polar regions. Ionisation caused by the protons results in changes in the lower ionosphere,and in production of neutral odd nitrogen (NOx )and odd hydrogen (HOx) species which then destroy ozone in well known catalytic chemical reaction chains. Large SPEs are able to decrease the ozone concentration of upper stratosphere and mesosphere, but are not expected to significantly affect the ozone layer at 15-30 km altitude except during x-class events.

NOx is produced in dissociation of molecular nitrogen by the primary and secondary solar particles and, to a lesser extent, in ion chemical reactions following the ion pair production. Production of HOx is solely due to ion chemistry,involving a rather complex scheme of water cluster ion reactions. The depletion of ozone is due to the increase of NOx and HOx, which accelerates the catalytic ozone loss cycles involving these species.The magnitude and duration of depletion depends on the particle flux, altitude,season(solar illumination level and atmospheric dynamics),and the chemical state of the atmosphere. The short-term ozone depletion due to HOx increase lasts some hours and can be greater than 90% in the middle mesosphere, while the long-term decrease, several tens of percent, is typically seen in the upper stratosphere and is due to NOx increase. Because of the long chemical lifetime of NOx, the effects on ozone can last for months and the produced NOx can be transported from the location of the precipitation, so that lower altitudes and latitudes may also be affected.

Nitrous oxide is a cooling agent for the upper atmosphere and during high energy events from either SPE or during high GCR activity we can see around 5 watts per metre removed from the radiative energy budget.

2007 is solar minima,this year is predicted to be the deepest solar minima in 3 cycles,due to temperatures in the low latitudes of the SH being 0.5-0.9 below 30 year mean and water temperatures of around 0.9-1.1 below 30 year mean we can expect a cold winter..

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